Reference Information


129 Million

Official Language


Primary Language





Mexico City

Current Time in Mexico City

11:27:58, 09/16/2021


Mexico has long played an important role in the history of North America. The first major landmass colonized by the Spanish and the site of the Americas' oldest cities, it is an integral bridge not only between the old world and the new but also the North and South American continents.

A country of significant historical impact as well as a major world economy, Mexico remains a nation of constant evolution as it both looks back to its past and continues to march towards the future.

Quick Facts about Mexico

  • With a population of 117 million people, Mexico is the eleventh most-populous country on Earth.
  • Mexico is home to the oldest university in the Americas, the National University of Mexico.
  • Mexico City is the oldest city in North America.
  • Chocolate was first introduced to Europeans by the native peoples of Mexico.
  • The world's smallest dog breed, the Chihuahua, is named for a state in Mexico.



Mexico borders only three nations. By far its longest border is its northern border with the United States, which stretches nearly two thousand miles. Far smaller is its southern border with Belize, which is only one hundred fifty-six miles long.

Mexico also borders Guatemala to the southeast, with a border that is around five-hundred forty-one miles. In addition to its land borders, Mexico also borders the Gulf of Mexico to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.


The physical area of Mexico is 761,610. This area includes around 3,700 square miles of island territory held in the Pacific Ocean. Though smaller than its northernmost neighbor, Mexico is actually the thirteenth largest country in the world as well as the third-largest country in Latin America.


The primary language spoke in Mexico is Spanish. In fact, it is actually the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world. With this said, Spanish is not technically the official language of Mexico - it is only one of sixty-four languages officially spoken in the country.

The bulk of the other languages spoken in Mexico are indigenous dialects. The most-spoken indigenous language in Mexico is the Nahuatl language, which is spoken by just over 1.7 million people. The next most widely spoken language is Yucatec Maya, with just under eight-hundred thousand speakers. Many Mexicans also speak English, with a higher rate of fluency among those who live either near the U.S. border or who live in areas frequented by English-speaking tourists.


Mexico's climate varies widely depending on where in the country one might be looking. In Northern Mexico, for example, the average high is close to 95 degrees Fahrenheit and the average lows are around 48 degrees Fahrenheit.

In Central Mexico and Baja California, though, the temperature rarely exceeds eight degrees Fahrenheit. The Yucatan Penninsula and Pacific Coast, on the other hand, tend to stay hotter than Northern Mexico and have significant rainy seasons.


Mexico is a federal republic with an executive branch headed by a President. The country's legislative power, however, lies in a bicameral system composed of a Senate and a Chamber of Deputies. The actual form and powers of the government have undergone significant changes since the founded of the nation, which most of the country's power now concentrated in the legislature.

As a federal republic, much of Mexico's power also sits within its states. Mexico has 31 states and one federal district, each of which has its own legislative, executive, and judicial branches as well as their own constitutions. Each of these states is further broken down into municipos, of which there are more than two thousand.